Monday, October 26, 2009

Guide to Trieste, North East Italy

Guide to Trieste, North East Italy
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ovJS1Em-6dg/Rf_QSE_pbpI/AAAAAAAAFdc/2H02e2oJ79c/s400/glassCar1.jpg

Trieste is an Adriatic coastal city in northeastern Italy, close
to the border with Slovenia. The sea in the Gulf of Trieste is
very clear and clean, with limestone cliffs and rocky
beaches. The centre of the city has a mid-European feel,
more Austrian than Italian, Trieste was the seaport of the
Hapsburg Empire.

Unique Points

You can enjoy a combination of a sea/beach holiday and the
attractions of a cultural city.

It is an ideal destination for a short break but you could
easily spend a week here too. The Verdi Theatre hosts an
opera season in the winter and an operetta festival in
summer. You can swim in the beautiful clear sea, stroll the
promenade, and walk along the cliff paths. Take in the
wonderful art collection at the Revoltella Museum. You can
sip coffee on Piazza Unita Italia with its grand 19th century
buildings, which face onto the sea.

Getting there

Ryanair flies into Trieste from London Standsted. The
airport is 35 kms west of Trieste but there is regular public
transport on Coach 51 into Trieste.

Getting around

If you do decide to hire a car, it is worth checking that you
can take it into Slovenia and Croatia if you are considering
day trips there.

Trieste has a good public transport network.

te by Bus"There is a "Tries city tour in 13 stops. This is
available on Saturdays and Sundays at 2pm from the end of
June to mid October. The two and a half hour trip allows
you to see the city's main attractions. The cost is around
five euros per person.

You can take the Opicani tram up to the Carso plateau, 348
metres above sea level. This funicular tramway was built in
1902. The tram leaves from Piazza Oberdan in the city
centre up Scorolo hill to the plateau above.

History

According to folklore Trieste was founded by Tergeste, a
friend of Jason and the Argonauts. Ancient Tergeste as a
Roman colony is dated to around 178 BC. It became more
important during the reign of Octavian when roads were
improved.

The city has had many rulers during its history: Goths,
Byzantines, and Lombards. In the 13th century Trieste was
forced to swear allegiance to Venice. To escape Venetian
domination, Trieste sought the protection of Duke Leopold
of Austria. Trieste was of great importance to the Hapsburg
Empire as a seaport and was made a Freeport in 1719.
Without customs barriers the port and city flourished.

At the end of the First World War with collapse of the
Hapsburg Empire, Trieste was returned to Italy in 1918.
Trieste was taken over by the Third Riech when Italy
withdrew from the Second World Ward in September 1943.
Two years later there was a 40-day Occupation by Tito's
Yugoslav forces. After 9 years under an Anglo-American
government Trieste was handed over to the Italian
government.

Trieste's history may help explain why 70% of Italians
apparently did not know that Trieste was part of Italy in a
recent opinion poll!
With EU enlargement Trieste is ideally placed as the only
natural port in the centre of Europe. Trieste is one of three
finalists to host the international Expo of Science,
Technology and Culture in 2008. If its bid is successful
there will be more investment in the area and Trieste will
become better known on the world map.

Literary Connections

The Irish author James Joyce lived in Trieste during the
early part of the 20th century. When he first arrived he
worked as a tutor at the Berlitz School of English. He went
on to write "The Dubliners", "The Portrait of an Artist as a
Young Man" and start "Ulysses" in Trieste. The rich mix of
central European and Eastern Mediterranean culture in
Trieste is said to have had a great influence on his writing.

Joyce was English tutor to Itali Svevo, the Italian novelist.
Svevo was born in Trieste in 1861, his Mother was part of a
Triestian Jewish family, and his Father was of German
descent. Joyce encouraged and praised Svevo's work and
Svevo wrote critiques of Joyce's work.

Svevo's book, "The Confessions of Zeno", was virtually
ignored in Italy. However Joyce recommended the book to
publishers in France, where it was hailed as a masterpiece.
The book is an autobiography of Zeno, written for Zeno's
psychoanalyst, to help get to the bottom of his smoking
addiction.

Svevo is credited by Welleck as "an Italian novelist with
permanent appeal as a psychoanalytical psychologist and
as a portrayer of the inhabitants of Austrian and later Italian
Trieste and their often uncertain national allegiance."

Jan Morris wrote the book, "Trieste and the Meaning of
Nowhere". Morris claims this is her final book, a self-
examination based in Trieste. Morris changed gender.
Jan Morris first visited Trieste at the end of the Second
World War as young Welsh soldier. She describes how the
city "curiously haunted her" . She revisited the city as an
elderly woman.

Morris describes Trieste as "natural capital of the nation of
nowhere". By this she means a home for the so-called
"Fourth World" . This is a scattered group with the common
values of humour and understanding, usually exiles in their
own communities but probably numerous enough to form
their own nation.

I laughed at Clay Risen's comment in his piece about
Trieste in the Square Table in Spring 2003. He observed
that "Trieste is the only city in Eruope which appears more
often in reflective essays than in guide books of newspaper
travel sections."

Exploring the city

The best way to explore the city is to walk around.

The Piazza dell' Unita d'Italia is the heart of the city. The
square was created towards the end of the 19th century. It
houses the City Hall, with its clock tower featuring statues of
Mikeze and Lakeze, figures from Trieste folklore;
Government House, with its gilded mosaic wall
decorations; and the former Head Office of Lloyd Triestino,
built in Renaissance style by an Austrian architect.

The Victory Lighthouse lights the Gulf of Trieste and
commemorates the dead of the First World War. It stands
almost 70 metres high with a scaled dome containing a
statue of winged Victory. At the base of the column is the
anchor of the torpedo boat Audace, the first Italian ship to
enter the harbour in 1918. The lighthouse took 4 years to
complete and was officially opened in 1927.

The Old Stock Exchange is a fine example of neo-classical
architecture, resembling a Greek temple. The Old Stock
Exchange stands by the so called Grand Canal. However
this is rather an misnomer as the canal is very short. There
is a statue of Joyce by one of the bridges.

The Arco di Riccard is a Roman gate to the city thought to
date from 33 AD. It is in Piazzetta di Ricordo in the old city.
You can see the Roman amphitheatre at the foot of San
Guisto hill.

The Verdi Opera Theatre opened in 1801. It is of a similar
style to La Scala in Milan.

Museums

There are many museums in Trieste, most of which are
closed on Mondays.

Probably the best is The Revoltella Museum, which was
founded in 1872 when Baron Revoletta left his home and art
collection to the city of Trieste. He also set up an
endowment, which enabled a larger collection to be
acquired. The Art Gallery has now spread over three
buildings in order to house the ever-expanding collection by
many Italian and other artists.

Other museums include:

The Regional Centre for the Study of Ancient and Modern

Military History

The Civic Museum

The Museum of Oriental Art

Piccolo Pharmacy Museum

The Railway Museum

Café society

As Trieste is a port it was one of the first European cities to
take to coffee in a big way. The first coffee houses in Trieste
opened at the beginning of the 18th century. These cafés
become very popular with artists and intellectuals. Several
of the original cafes are going strong, the Tommeseo and
the Cafee degli Specchi.

Triestines are very particular about their coffee. If you order
a cappuccino the Trieste version will be a black coffee with
a little milk. You would need to order an Italian cappuccino.
Mixing spirits with coffee is a no-no, viewed as a beverage
favoured by foreign lorry drivers!

Cultural and Sporting Events

The Barcolana is held on the second Sunday of October.
This is a sailing competition which has run for 30 years and
has almost 2000 vessels competing. There are other
events during the week such as the Saturday nighttime
regatta. The winner is the boat, which can achieve the
highest number of laps around the San Guisto basin. The
Music Festival takes place for three evenings at the Piazza
d'Italie. There is a line up of Italian and international talent
and it's free.

From October to May the concert and opera season unfolds
in the historic neo-Classical Teatro Comunale Giuseppe
Verdi (opened in 1801 and designed by Matteo Petch,
architect of Milan's La Scala) and the modern Sala
Tripcovich. The festival of Light Opera is held in July and
August at the Verdi. Figures of international renown
congregate in Trieste for performances of such works as
Fritz Kreisler's "Sissi", "The Land of Smiles" and Franz
Lear's "Judith".

Castello Miramare

This castle was built for Archduke Maximilian as a
residence by the sea. Maxilmilian and his wife, Charlotte of
Belgium, came to live here in 1860. However their stay only
lasted for 4 years as Maximilian was despatched to Mexico,
where he been offered the throne in an attempt to end the
Civil War there. Rebel forces killed Maximilian. Charlotte
lived at the Castello alone briefly and then returned to her
native Belgium. You can visit the castle and gardens.

In July and August the tragic love story is brought to life in a
"Sons et Lumieres". The voice of the Castle caretaker
recounts the love story of Maximilian and Charlotte.
Performances in English and German can be requested on
Saturdays by phoning +39 40 414177

Castello di Duino

This old castle dates from the 11th century, the only
recognisable remains are the tower and an arch. The new
castle was completed in the 15th century.
Legend tells that in medieval times a young princess fell in
love with a local boy. Her Father locked her away in a tower
and had her lover killed in the courtyard below and the
corpse thrown in the sea. In despair the Princess leapt
from the tower, her screams turned her to stone as she
hurtled down. Near the shore is a rock that looks like a
woman's body. Some say that "Dama Biance" still haunts
the area searching for her lost love.

Duino Castle has only recently opened its doors to the
public. Prince Carlo Allessandro and his family still live in
the castle. The castle has accommodated many famous
guests: Dante, Listz and Struass.

The coastal path, the Rilke Promenade from Duino to
Sistians is named after the German poet, a guest at the
castle from 1911 - 1912.

The Grotta Gigante, the Giant Cave

This cave is the largest accessible cave in the world. It is
estimated that you could fit St Peters Cathedral inside. The
cave was first explored in 1840 by Lidner. In 1904, a four-
year project started to turn the cave into a tourist attraction. It
took 4000 candles to light the cave, electricity was only
installed in 1957.
There are hourly guided visits. You can find out about
opening hours by phoning 040 327312.

Swimming

The beach at Sistinna Spiaggia is said to be one of the best
in Italy. It can be reached by the no. 51 and 21 buses from
Trieste. Grignano is closer to Trieste and is reached by the
no. 36 bus.

Where to eat

Harry's Grill in the Hotel Gran Duchi is one of Trieste's most
exclusive restaurants. I have eaten at this restaurant. I was
even served with a pre-starter, a delicious titbit of stuffed
aubergine, and a pre-dessert, a lovely strawberry mousse.
The accompanying bread and bread sticks has been freshly
baked. My (proper) starter was stuffed pasta, the main
course was sea bass, topped off with white chocolate
mousse rippled with passionfruit sauce. It is entirely
possible to have a lighter meal, if you can resist the
temptation. In Summer you can sit out on the
pedestrianised square. Main courses cost from 16 - 26
euros. Piazza dll"Unita d"Italia 2, tel: 040 660606

Al Bragozzo is the best-known restaurant at the port, which
specialises in seafood. The simply yet creatively prepared
meals pay homage to the sea and its heritage by combining
the elements of Italian cuisine and the riches of the
Mediterranean. Specialties include spaghetti alla Giorgio
(with tomatoes and herbs), ravioli stuffed with herbs,
monkfish braised with artichokes (and cooked with white
wine), and spaghetti with lobster. There are also many
preparations of salmon and shrimp. You can eat at the
outdoor tables, weather permitting, if you visit in the
summer. Main courses cost from 10 - 25 euros. Riva
Nazario Sauro 22. tel: 040 303001.

There are many buffets in Trieste. These are restaurants
which specialise in pork, often in various stews, sausages
and soups. Two of the best known are:
Re di cappe, Via Geppa 11, tel 040 370330
Da Giovanni, Via S Lazzaro 14, tel 040 639396

Day trips

Exploring the Carse

The Triestine cares starts at Montefalcone in the north and
stretches down adjacent to the Slovenian border. The area
is known as a paradise for botanists with a mixture of
continental flora and Mediterranean vegetation. There is talk
of the area achieving national park status.

The Carsic house in Rupingrande has a collection of
traditional furniture and local costumes.

During the first week in May the works of local painters are
exhibited during the Majence Festival, in San Dorligo delle
Valle.

The best known event is the Carsic Wedding, every second
year on the last Sunday of August in Monrupino. There are
dances every night of the preceeding week. On the wedding
day the bridal procession, all dressed in traditional
costume, walk to the fortress church for the marriage
ceremony.

Grado and Aquiliea

Aquiliea was founded in the first century BC. It occupies a
strategic defence location. It became a Patriarchs's seat
andmany beautiful churches were built. The Bascilica is
considered to be one of the most important monuments of
early Christianity. There are two museums to visit there.

Grado was the extreme southern part of the port of Aquileia.
Now it a beautiful island city joined to the mainland by a
causeway. It boasts 20 kms of fine sandy beaches. Grado
was very popular as a spa during the days of the Austrio
Hungarian Empire with its healing sands.
Grado can be reached by the no 21 bus from Trieste. There
is also a boat service during the Summer.

Muggia

Muggia is a pretty coastal town just south of Trieste, which
can be reached by ferry from Trieste during the summer.
The town is of Venetian origin, surrounded by medieval
walls with a 14th century castle and a pretty port.

Slovenia

The Slovenian border is just a few kilometres from Trieste.
The Lipica Stud and Riding School is under a half hour drive
from Trieste. It was originally founded in 1580 by Archduke
Charles for breeding royal horses for the Austrian court.
Now you can tour the stud farm (6 Euros) or have a riding
lesson, starting at 16 euros.

Croatia

Croatia can be easily reached through by passing through
the narrow strip of coastal Slovenia.

Wine Country

Every Sunday during April, May and June you can visit
specific wineries in the area to try their products.

There are various wine itineraries you can follow.

Venice

Venice can be reached by direct train from Trieste. The
journey takes around two hours. The train takes you right
into the centre of Venice.

Trieste is an Adriatic coastal city in northeastern Italy, close
to the border with Slovenia. The sea in the Gulf of Trieste is
very clear and clean, with limestone cliffs and rocky
beaches. The centre of the city has a mid-European feel,
more Austrian than Italian, Trieste was the seaport of the
Hapsburg Empire.

Unique Points

You can enjoy a combination of a sea/beach holiday and the
attractions of a cultural city.

It is an ideal destination for a short break but you could
easily spend a week here too. The Verdi Theatre hosts an
opera season in the winter and an operetta festival in
summer. You can swim in the beautiful clear sea, stroll the
promenade, and walk along the cliff paths. Take in the
wonderful art collection at the Revoltella Museum. You can
sip coffee on Piazza Unita Italia with its grand 19th century
buildings, which face onto the sea.

Getting there

Ryanair flies into Trieste from London Standsted. The
airport is 35 kms west of Trieste but there is regular public
transport on Coach 51 into Trieste.

Getting around

If you do decide to hire a car, it is worth checking that you
can take it into Slovenia and Croatia if you are considering
day trips there.

Trieste has a good public transport network.

There is a "Trieste by Bus" city tour in 13 stops. This is
available on Saturdays and Sundays at 2pm from the end of
June to mid October. The two and a half hour trip allows
you to see the city's main attractions. The cost is around
five euros per person.

You can take the Opicani tram up to the Carso plateau, 348
metres above sea level. This funicular tramway was built in
1902. The tram leaves from Piazza Oberdan in the city
centre up Scorolo hill to the plateau above.

History

According to folklore Trieste was founded by Tergeste, a
friend of Jason and the Argonauts. Ancient Tergeste as a
Roman colony is dated to around 178 BC. It became more
important during the reign of Octavian when roads were
improved.

The city has had many rulers during its history: Goths,
Byzantines, and Lombards. In the 13th century Trieste was
forced to swear allegiance to Venice. To escape Venetian
domination, Trieste sought the protection of Duke Leopold
of Austria. Trieste was of great importance to the Hapsburg
Empire as a seaport and was made a Freeport in 1719.
Without customs barriers the port and city flourished.

At the end of the First World War with collapse of the
Hapsburg Empire, Trieste was returned to Italy in 1918.
Trieste was taken over by the Third Riech when Italy
withdrew from the Second World Ward in September 1943.
Two years later there was a 40-day Occupation by Tito's
Yugoslav forces. After 9 years under an Anglo-American
government Trieste was handed over to the Italian
government.

Trieste's history may help explain why 70% of Italians
apparently did not know that Trieste was part of Italy in a
recent opinion poll!
With EU enlargement Trieste is ideally placed as the only
natural port in the centre of Europe. Trieste is one of three
finalists to host the international Expo of Science,
Technology and Culture in 2008. If its bid is successful
there will be more investment in the area and Trieste will
become better known on the world map.

Literary Connections

The Irish author James Joyce lived in Trieste during the
early part of the 20th century. When he first arrived he
worked as a tutor at the Berlitz School of English. He went
on to write "The Dubliners", "The Portrait of an Artist as a
Young Man" and start "Ulysses" in Trieste. The rich mix of
central European and Eastern Mediterranean culture in
Trieste is said to have had a great influence on his writing.

Joyce was English tutor to Itali Svevo, the Italian novelist.
Svevo was born in Trieste in 1861, his Mother was part of a
Triestian Jewish family, and his Father was of German
descent. Joyce encouraged and praised Svevo's work and
Svevo wrote critiques of Joyce's work.

Svevo's book, "The Confessions of Zeno", was virtually
ignored in Italy. However Joyce recommended the book to
publishers in France, where it was hailed as a masterpiece.
The book is an autobiography of Zeno, written for Zeno's
psychoanalyst, to help get to the bottom of his smoking
addiction.

Svevo is credited by Welleck as "an Italian novelist with
permanent appeal as a psychoanalytical psychologist and
as a portrayer of the inhabitants of Austrian and later Italian
Trieste and their often uncertain national allegiance."

Jan Morris wrote the book, "Trieste and the Meaning of
Nowhere". Morris claims this is her final book, a self-
examination based in Trieste. Morris changed gender.
Jan Morris first visited Trieste at the end of the Second
World War as young Welsh soldier. She describes how the
city "curiously haunted her" . She revisited the city as an
elderly woman.

Morris describes Trieste as "natural capital of the nation of
nowhere". By this she means a home for the so-called
"Fourth World" . This is a scattered group with the common
values of humour and understanding, usually exiles in their
own communities but probably numerous enough to form
their own nation.

I laughed at Clay Risen's comment in his piece about
Trieste in the Square Table in Spring 2003. He observed
that "Trieste is the only city in Eruope which appears more
often in reflective essays than in guide books of newspaper
travel sections."

Exploring the city

The best way to explore the city is to walk around.

The Piazza dell' Unita d'Italia is the heart of the city. The
square was created towards the end of the 19th century. It
houses the City Hall, with its clock tower featuring statues of
Mikeze and Lakeze, figures from Trieste folklore;
Government House, with its gilded mosaic wall
decorations; and the former Head Office of Lloyd Triestino,
built in Renaissance style by an Austrian architect.

The Victory Lighthouse lights the Gulf of Trieste and
commemorates the dead of the First World War. It stands
almost 70 metres high with a scaled dome containing a
statue of winged Victory. At the base of the column is the
anchor of the torpedo boat Audace, the first Italian ship to
enter the harbour in 1918. The lighthouse took 4 years to
complete and was officially opened in 1927.

The Old Stock Exchange is a fine example of neo-classical
architecture, resembling a Greek temple. The Old Stock
Exchange stands by the so called Grand Canal. However
this is rather an misnomer as the canal is very short. There
is a statue of Joyce by one of the bridges.

The Arco di Riccard is a Roman gate to the city thought to
date from 33 AD. It is in Piazzetta di Ricordo in the old city.
You can see the Roman amphitheatre at the foot of San
Guisto hill.

The Verdi Opera Theatre opened in 1801. It is of a similar
style to La Scala in Milan.

Museums

There are many museums in Trieste, most of which are
closed on Mondays.

Probably the best is The Revoltella Museum, which was
founded in 1872 when Baron Revoletta left his home and art
collection to the city of Trieste. He also set up an
endowment, which enabled a larger collection to be
acquired. The Art Gallery has now spread over three
buildings in order to house the ever-expanding collection by
many Italian and other artists.

Other museums include:

The Regional Centre for the Study of Ancient and Modern

Military History

The Civic Museum

The Museum of Oriental Art

Piccolo Pharmacy Museum

The Railway Museum

Café society

As Trieste is a port it was one of the first European cities to
take to coffee in a big way. The first coffee houses in Trieste
opened at the beginning of the 18th century. These cafés
become very popular with artists and intellectuals. Several
of the original cafes are going strong, the Tommeseo and
the Cafee degli Specchi.

Triestines are very particular about their coffee. If you order
a cappuccino the Trieste version will be a black coffee with
a little milk. You would need to order an Italian cappuccino.
Mixing spirits with coffee is a no-no, viewed as a beverage
favoured by foreign lorry drivers!

Cultural and Sporting Events

The Barcolana is held on the second Sunday of October.
This is a sailing competition which has run for 30 years and
has almost 2000 vessels competing. There are other
events during the week such as the Saturday nighttime
regatta. The winner is the boat, which can achieve the
highest number of laps around the San Guisto basin. The
Music Festival takes place for three evenings at the Piazza
d'Italie. There is a line up of Italian and international talent
and it's free.

From October to May the concert and opera season unfolds
in the historic neo-Classical Teatro Comunale Giuseppe
Verdi (opened in 1801 and designed by Matteo Petch,
architect of Milan's La Scala) and the modern Sala
Tripcovich. The festival of Light Opera is held in July and
August at the Verdi. Figures of international renown
congregate in Trieste for performances of such works as
Fritz Kreisler's "Sissi", "The Land of Smiles" and Franz
Lear's "Judith".

Castello Miramare

This castle was built for Archduke Maximilian as a
residence by the sea. Maxilmilian and his wife, Charlotte of
Belgium, came to live here in 1860. However their stay only
lasted for 4 years as Maximilian was despatched to Mexico,
where he been offered the throne in an attempt to end the
Civil War there. Rebel forces killed Maximilian. Charlotte
lived at the Castello alone briefly and then returned to her
native Belgium. You can visit the castle and gardens.

In July and August the tragic love story is brought to life in a
"Sons et Lumieres". The voice of the Castle caretaker
recounts the love story of Maximilian and Charlotte.
Performances in English and German can be requested on
Saturdays by phoning +39 40 414177

Castello di Duino

This old castle dates from the 11th century, the only
recognisable remains are the tower and an arch. The new
castle was completed in the 15th century.
Legend tells that in medieval times a young princess fell in
love with a local boy. Her Father locked her away in a tower
and had her lover killed in the courtyard below and the
corpse thrown in the sea. In despair the Princess leapt
from the tower, her screams turned her to stone as she
hurtled down. Near the shore is a rock that looks like a
woman's body. Some say that "Dama Biance" still haunts
the area searching for her lost love.

Duino Castle has only recently opened its doors to the
public. Prince Carlo Allessandro and his family still live in
the castle. The castle has accommodated many famous
guests: Dante, Listz and Struass.

The coastal path, the Rilke Promenade from Duino to
Sistians is named after the German poet, a guest at the
castle from 1911 - 1912.

The Grotta Gigante, the Giant Cave

This cave is the largest accessible cave in the world. It is
estimated that you could fit St Peters Cathedral inside. The
cave was first explored in 1840 by Lidner. In 1904, a four-
year project started to turn the cave into a tourist attraction. It
took 4000 candles to light the cave, electricity was only
installed in 1957.
There are hourly guided visits. You can find out about
opening hours by phoning 040 327312.

Swimming

The beach at Sistinna Spiaggia is said to be one of the best
in Italy. It can be reached by the no. 51 and 21 buses from
Trieste. Grignano is closer to Trieste and is reached by the
no. 36 bus.

Where to eat

Harry's Grill in the Hotel Gran Duchi is one of Trieste's most
exclusive restaurants. I have eaten at this restaurant. I was
even served with a pre-starter, a delicious titbit of stuffed
aubergine, and a pre-dessert, a lovely strawberry mousse.
The accompanying bread and bread sticks has been freshly
baked. My (proper) starter was stuffed pasta, the main
course was sea bass, topped off with white chocolate
mousse rippled with passionfruit sauce. It is entirely
possible to have a lighter meal, if you can resist the
temptation. In Summer you can sit out on the
pedestrianised square. Main courses cost from 16 - 26
euros. Piazza dll"Unita d"Italia 2, tel: 040 660606

Al Bragozzo is the best-known restaurant at the port, which
specialises in seafood. The simply yet creatively prepared
meals pay homage to the sea and its heritage by combining
the elements of Italian cuisine and the riches of the
Mediterranean. Specialties include spaghetti alla Giorgio
(with tomatoes and herbs), ravioli stuffed with herbs,
monkfish braised with artichokes (and cooked with white
wine), and spaghetti with lobster. There are also many
preparations of salmon and shrimp. You can eat at the
outdoor tables, weather permitting, if you visit in the
summer. Main courses cost from 10 - 25 euros. Riva
Nazario Sauro 22. tel: 040 303001.

There are many buffets in Trieste. These are restaurants
which specialise in pork, often in various stews, sausages
and soups. Two of the best known are:
Re di cappe, Via Geppa 11, tel 040 370330
Da Giovanni, Via S Lazzaro 14, tel 040 639396

Day trips

Exploring the Carse

The Triestine cares starts at Montefalcone in the north and
stretches down adjacent to the Slovenian border. The area
is known as a paradise for botanists with a mixture of
continental flora and Mediterranean vegetation. There is talk
of the area achieving national park status.

The Carsic house in Rupingrande has a collection of
traditional furniture and local costumes.

During the first week in May the works of local painters are
exhibited during the Majence Festival, in San Dorligo delle
Valle.

The best known event is the Carsic Wedding, every second
year on the last Sunday of August in Monrupino. There are
dances every night of the preceeding week. On the wedding
day the bridal procession, all dressed in traditional
costume, walk to the fortress church for the marriage
ceremony.

Grado and Aquiliea

Aquiliea was founded in the first century BC. It occupies a
strategic defence location. It became a Patriarchs's seat
andmany beautiful churches were built. The Bascilica is
considered to be one of the most important monuments of
early Christianity. There are two museums to visit there.

Grado was the extreme southern part of the port of Aquileia.
Now it a beautiful island city joined to the mainland by a
causeway. It boasts 20 kms of fine sandy beaches. Grado
was very popular as a spa during the days of the Austrio
Hungarian Empire with its healing sands.
Grado can be reached by the no 21 bus from Trieste. There
is also a boat service during the Summer.

Muggia

Muggia is a pretty coastal town just south of Trieste, which
can be reached by ferry from Trieste during the summer.
The town is of Venetian origin, surrounded by medieval
walls with a 14th century castle and a pretty port.

Slovenia

The Slovenian border is just a few kilometres from Trieste.
The Lipica Stud and Riding School is under a half hour drive
from Trieste. It was originally founded in 1580 by Archduke
Charles for breeding royal horses for the Austrian court.
Now you can tour the stud farm (6 Euros) or have a riding
lesson, starting at 16 euros.

Croatia

Croatia can be easily reached through by passing through
the narrow strip of coastal Slovenia.

Wine Country

Every Sunday during April, May and June you can visit
specific wineries in the area to try their products.

There are various wine itineraries you can follow.

Venice

Venice can be reached by direct train from Trieste. The
journey takes around two hours. The train takes you right
into the centre of Venice.

Trieste is an Adriatic coastal city in northeastern Italy, close
to the border with Slovenia. The sea in the Gulf of Trieste is
very clear and clean, with limestone cliffs and rocky
beaches. The centre of the city has a mid-European feel,
more Austrian than Italian, Trieste was the seaport of the
Hapsburg Empire.

Unique Points

You can enjoy a combination of a sea/beach holiday and the
attractions of a cultural city.

It is an ideal destination for a short break but you could
easily spend a week here too. The Verdi Theatre hosts an
opera season in the winter and an operetta festival in
summer. You can swim in the beautiful clear sea, stroll the
promenade, and walk along the cliff paths. Take in the
wonderful art collection at the Revoltella Museum. You can
sip coffee on Piazza Unita Italia with its grand 19th century
buildings, which face onto the sea.

Getting there

Ryanair flies into Trieste from London Standsted. The
airport is 35 kms west of Trieste but there is regular public
transport on Coach 51 into Trieste.

Getting around

If you do decide to hire a car, it is worth checking that you
can take it into Slovenia and Croatia if you are considering
day trips there.

Trieste has a good public transport network.

There is a "Trieste by Bus" city tour in 13 stops. This is
available on Saturdays and Sundays at 2pm from the end of
June to mid October. The two and a half hour trip allows
you to see the city's main attractions. The cost is around
five euros per person.

You can take the Opicani tram up to the Carso plateau, 348
metres above sea level. This funicular tramway was built in
1902. The tram leaves from Piazza Oberdan in the city
centre up Scorolo hill to the plateau above.

History

According to folklore Trieste was founded by Tergeste, a
friend of Jason and the Argonauts. Ancient Tergeste as a
Roman colony is dated to around 178 BC. It became more
important during the reign of Octavian when roads were
improved.

The city has had many rulers during its history: Goths,
Byzantines, and Lombards. In the 13th century Trieste was
forced to swear allegiance to Venice. To escape Venetian
domination, Trieste sought the protection of Duke Leopold
of Austria. Trieste was of great importance to the Hapsburg
Empire as a seaport and was made a Freeport in 1719.
Without customs barriers the port and city flourished.

At the end of the First World War with collapse of the
Hapsburg Empire, Trieste was returned to Italy in 1918.
Trieste was taken over by the Third Riech when Italy
withdrew from the Second World Ward in September 1943.
Two years later there was a 40-day Occupation by Tito's
Yugoslav forces. After 9 years under an Anglo-American
government Trieste was handed over to the Italian
government.

Trieste's history may help explain why 70% of Italians
apparently did not know that Trieste was part of Italy in a
recent opinion poll!
With EU enlargement Trieste is ideally placed as the only
natural port in the centre of Europe. Trieste is one of three
finalists to host the international Expo of Science,
Technology and Culture in 2008. If its bid is successful
there will be more investment in the area and Trieste will
become better known on the world map.

Literary Connections

The Irish author James Joyce lived in Trieste during the
early part of the 20th century. When he first arrived he
worked as a tutor at the Berlitz School of English. He went
on to write "The Dubliners", "The Portrait of an Artist as a
Young Man" and start "Ulysses" in Trieste. The rich mix of
central European and Eastern Mediterranean culture in
Trieste is said to have had a great influence on his writing.

Joyce was English tutor to Itali Svevo, the Italian novelist.
Svevo was born in Trieste in 1861, his Mother was part of a
Triestian Jewish family, and his Father was of German
descent. Joyce encouraged and praised Svevo's work and
Svevo wrote critiques of Joyce's work.

Svevo's book, "The Confessions of Zeno", was virtually
ignored in Italy. However Joyce recommended the book to
publishers in France, where it was hailed as a masterpiece.
The book is an autobiography of Zeno, written for Zeno's
psychoanalyst, to help get to the bottom of his smoking
addiction.

Svevo is credited by Welleck as "an Italian novelist with
permanent appeal as a psychoanalytical psychologist and
as a portrayer of the inhabitants of Austrian and later Italian
Trieste and their often uncertain national allegiance."

Jan Morris wrote the book, "Trieste and the Meaning of
Nowhere". Morris claims this is her final book, a self-
examination based in Trieste. Morris changed gender.
Jan Morris first visited Trieste at the end of the Second
World War as young Welsh soldier. She describes how the
city "curiously haunted her" . She revisited the city as an
elderly woman.

Morris describes Trieste as "natural capital of the nation of
nowhere". By this she means a home for the so-called
"Fourth World" . This is a scattered group with the common
values of humour and understanding, usually exiles in their
own communities but probably numerous enough to form
their own nation.

I laughed at Clay Risen's comment in his piece about
Trieste in the Square Table in Spring 2003. He observed
that "Trieste is the only city in Eruope which appears more
often in reflective essays than in guide books of newspaper
travel sections."

Exploring the city

The best way to explore the city is to walk around.

The Piazza dell' Unita d'Italia is the heart of the city. The
square was created towards the end of the 19th century. It
houses the City Hall, with its clock tower featuring statues of
Mikeze and Lakeze, figures from Trieste folklore;
Government House, with its gilded mosaic wall
decorations; and the former Head Office of Lloyd Triestino,
built in Renaissance style by an Austrian architect.

The Victory Lighthouse lights the Gulf of Trieste and
commemorates the dead of the First World War. It stands
almost 70 metres high with a scaled dome containing a
statue of winged Victory. At the base of the column is the
anchor of the torpedo boat Audace, the first Italian ship to
enter the harbour in 1918. The lighthouse took 4 years to
complete and was officially opened in 1927.

The Old Stock Exchange is a fine example of neo-classical
architecture, resembling a Greek temple. The Old Stock
Exchange stands by the so called Grand Canal. However
this is rather an misnomer as the canal is very short. There
is a statue of Joyce by one of the bridges.

The Arco di Riccard is a Roman gate to the city thought to
date from 33 AD. It is in Piazzetta di Ricordo in the old city.
You can see the Roman amphitheatre at the foot of San
Guisto hill.

The Verdi Opera Theatre opened in 1801. It is of a similar
style to La Scala in Milan.

Museums

There are many museums in Trieste, most of which are
closed on Mondays.

Probably the best is The Revoltella Museum, which was
founded in 1872 when Baron Revoletta left his home and art
collection to the city of Trieste. He also set up an
endowment, which enabled a larger collection to be
acquired. The Art Gallery has now spread over three
buildings in order to house the ever-expanding collection by
many Italian and other artists.

Other museums include:

The Regional Centre for the Study of Ancient and Modern

Military History

The Civic Museum

The Museum of Oriental Art

Piccolo Pharmacy Museum

The Railway Museum

Café society

As Trieste is a port it was one of the first European cities to
take to coffee in a big way. The first coffee houses in Trieste
opened at the beginning of the 18th century. These cafés
become very popular with artists and intellectuals. Several
of the original cafes are going strong, the Tommeseo and
the Cafee degli Specchi.

Triestines are very particular about their coffee. If you order
a cappuccino the Trieste version will be a black coffee with
a little milk. You would need to order an Italian cappuccino.
Mixing spirits with coffee is a no-no, viewed as a beverage
favoured by foreign lorry drivers!

Cultural and Sporting Events

The Barcolana is held on the second Sunday of October.
This is a sailing competition which has run for 30 years and
has almost 2000 vessels competing. There are other
events during the week such as the Saturday nighttime
regatta. The winner is the boat, which can achieve the
highest number of laps around the San Guisto basin. The
Music Festival takes place for three evenings at the Piazza
d'Italie. There is a line up of Italian and international talent
and it's free.

From October to May the concert and opera season unfolds
in the historic neo-Classical Teatro Comunale Giuseppe
Verdi (opened in 1801 and designed by Matteo Petch,
architect of Milan's La Scala) and the modern Sala
Tripcovich. The festival of Light Opera is held in July and
August at the Verdi. Figures of international renown
congregate in Trieste for performances of such works as
Fritz Kreisler's "Sissi", "The Land of Smiles" and Franz
Lear's "Judith".

Castello Miramare

This castle was built for Archduke Maximilian as a
residence by the sea. Maxilmilian and his wife, Charlotte of
Belgium, came to live here in 1860. However their stay only
lasted for 4 years as Maximilian was despatched to Mexico,
where he been offered the throne in an attempt to end the
Civil War there. Rebel forces killed Maximilian. Charlotte
lived at the Castello alone briefly and then returned to her
native Belgium. You can visit the castle and gardens.

In July and August the tragic love story is brought to life in a
"Sons et Lumieres". The voice of the Castle caretaker
recounts the love story of Maximilian and Charlotte.
Performances in English and German can be requested on
Saturdays by phoning +39 40 414177

Castello di Duino

This old castle dates from the 11th century, the only
recognisable remains are the tower and an arch. The new
castle was completed in the 15th century.
Legend tells that in medieval times a young princess fell in
love with a local boy. Her Father locked her away in a tower
and had her lover killed in the courtyard below and the
corpse thrown in the sea. In despair the Princess leapt
from the tower, her screams turned her to stone as she
hurtled down. Near the shore is a rock that looks like a
woman's body. Some say that "Dama Biance" still haunts
the area searching for her lost love.

Duino Castle has only recently opened its doors to the
public. Prince Carlo Allessandro and his family still live in
the castle. The castle has accommodated many famous
guests: Dante, Listz and Struass.

The coastal path, the Rilke Promenade from Duino to
Sistians is named after the German poet, a guest at the
castle from 1911 - 1912.

The Grotta Gigante, the Giant Cave

This cave is the largest accessible cave in the world. It is
estimated that you could fit St Peters Cathedral inside. The
cave was first explored in 1840 by Lidner. In 1904, a four-
year project started to turn the cave into a tourist attraction. It
took 4000 candles to light the cave, electricity was only
installed in 1957.
There are hourly guided visits. You can find out about
opening hours by phoning 040 327312.

Swimming

The beach at Sistinna Spiaggia is said to be one of the best
in Italy. It can be reached by the no. 51 and 21 buses from
Trieste. Grignano is closer to Trieste and is reached by the
no. 36 bus.

Where to eat

Harry's Grill in the Hotel Gran Duchi is one of Trieste's most
exclusive restaurants. I have eaten at this restaurant. I was
even served with a pre-starter, a delicious titbit of stuffed
aubergine, and a pre-dessert, a lovely strawberry mousse.
The accompanying bread and bread sticks has been freshly
baked. My (proper) starter was stuffed pasta, the main
course was sea bass, topped off with white chocolate
mousse rippled with passionfruit sauce. It is entirely
possible to have a lighter meal, if you can resist the
temptation. In Summer you can sit out on the
pedestrianised square. Main courses cost from 16 - 26
euros. Piazza dll"Unita d"Italia 2, tel: 040 660606

Al Bragozzo is the best-known restaurant at the port, which
specialises in seafood. The simply yet creatively prepared
meals pay homage to the sea and its heritage by combining
the elements of Italian cuisine and the riches of the
Mediterranean. Specialties include spaghetti alla Giorgio
(with tomatoes and herbs), ravioli stuffed with herbs,
monkfish braised with artichokes (and cooked with white
wine), and spaghetti with lobster. There are also many
preparations of salmon and shrimp. You can eat at the
outdoor tables, weather permitting, if you visit in the
summer. Main courses cost from 10 - 25 euros. Riva
Nazario Sauro 22. tel: 040 303001.

There are many buffets in Trieste. These are restaurants
which specialise in pork, often in various stews, sausages
and soups. Two of the best known are:
Re di cappe, Via Geppa 11, tel 040 370330
Da Giovanni, Via S Lazzaro 14, tel 040 639396

Day trips

Exploring the Carse

The Triestine cares starts at Montefalcone in the north and
stretches down adjacent to the Slovenian border. The area
is known as a paradise for botanists with a mixture of
continental flora and Mediterranean vegetation. There is talk
of the area achieving national park status.

The Carsic house in Rupingrande has a collection of
traditional furniture and local costumes.

During the first week in May the works of local painters are
exhibited during the Majence Festival, in San Dorligo delle
Valle.

The best known event is the Carsic Wedding, every second
year on the last Sunday of August in Monrupino. There are
dances every night of the preceeding week. On the wedding
day the bridal procession, all dressed in traditional
costume, walk to the fortress church for the marriage
ceremony.

Grado and Aquiliea

Aquiliea was founded in the first century BC. It occupies a
strategic defence location. It became a Patriarchs's seat
andmany beautiful churches were built. The Bascilica is
considered to be one of the most important monuments of
early Christianity. There are two museums to visit there.

Grado was the extreme southern part of the port of Aquileia.
Now it a beautiful island city joined to the mainland by a
causeway. It boasts 20 kms of fine sandy beaches. Grado
was very popular as a spa during the days of the Austrio
Hungarian Empire with its healing sands.
Grado can be reached by the no 21 bus from Trieste. There
is also a boat service during the Summer.

Muggia

Muggia is a pretty coastal town just south of Trieste, which
can be reached by ferry from Trieste during the summer.
The town is of Venetian origin, surrounded by medieval
walls with a 14th century castle and a pretty port.

Slovenia

The Slovenian border is just a few kilometres from Trieste.
The Lipica Stud and Riding School is under a half hour drive
from Trieste. It was originally founded in 1580 by Archduke
Charles for breeding royal horses for the Austrian court.
Now you can tour the stud farm (6 Euros) or have a riding
lesson, starting at 16 euros.

Croatia

Croatia can be easily reached through by passing through
the narrow strip of coastal Slovenia.

Wine Country

Every Sunday during April, May and June you can visit

specific wineries in the area to try their products.

There are various wine itineraries you can follow.



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